Chinese Moral Foundation Dictionary 2.0 Launched!

December 24, 2022

The Chinese Moral Foundation Dictionary 2.0 (C-MFD 2.0) is a dictionary to assist the automated moral intuition detection and analysis in the Chinese language context. Starting from the existing Chinese translation of the English MFD, two experts selected additional Chinese moral concepts and used word2vec to fetch related words from an extensive Chinese dictionary. Four experts went through four-rounds of coding, followed by the validation from 202 crowd coders. The CMFD identifies not only the classic five moral foundations but also several potentially novel moral foundation candidates.

Developed by Weiyu Zhang (National University of Singapore) and Yixiang Calvin Cheng (Oxford University), with assistance by Zhuo Chen (Peking University HSBC Business School), Yipeng Xi (Shanghai Jiaotong University), Haodong Liu (City University of Hong Kong) and Chuyao Wang (King's College London). Special thanks to Zhiyuan Liu (Fudan University) for creating the Python package (

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